The strength of the activity is its depth and interdisciplinary approach. This activity reinforces the interdisciplinary nature of modern science. Students utilize real data from real scientists. Students apply the principles of evolution in their reasoning to make use of this data from geology and biological science. For purposes of this publication, I have placed the student activity in the beginning followed by teacher information and my discussion of possible solutions.
By their very nature, islands are isolated and are essentially a living laboratory of evolution. In this investigation, you should be familiar with the terms speciation, geographic isolation, gene flow, gene pool, and reproductive isolation.
You will work with real data from real populations. The data will include observations of lizard morphology body formgeological age estimates of various islands in the Canary Island Archipelago, geographic distances, and genetic distances based on nucleotide base differences in DNA between different populations of lizards.
The Canary Islands form an archipelago of seven volcanic islands just west of the African continent Map 1. The island chain starts about 85 km 50 miles west of the continent, following a fault line of the Atlas Mountains in northern Africa. Geologists theorize that a geologic hot spot of upwelling magma has been drifting westward for the past 20 million years, gradually forming the islands as it moves.
Thus the most eastern island, Lanzarote, is oldest, while the smaller western island, Hierro, is the youngest, about 0. Volcanic islands are particularly good laboratories for evolutionary science because they can be dated accurately using radioactive isotope decay and because they start out as lifeless masses of rock emerging from the sea. The development of ecosystems on volcanic islands is somewhat unpredictable.
However, ecological succession does occur first with pioneer organisms that gradually alter the environment until a stable climax community is established. What is unpredictable is what plant and animal species will colonize these new environments.
Much of this is left to climate, proximity to other land masses, and of course, chance. This investigation deals with three species of lizards of the genus Gallotiaand within one of these species, Gallotia gallotifour separate island populations.
The arrival of the Gallotia lizards was probably by rafting See Map 1. Rafts of natural vegetation are often washed out to sea when high river levels cause river banks to collapse, carrying away both plants and clinging animals. Oceanic currents in this region vary with the seasons.
Colonization by airborne organisms, such as insects and birds, usually occurs during storms. In any case, there are some general principles of island colonization: 1 The closer the island to another land mass, the higher the probability of colonization.
What is the phylogenetic history of the three species and seven populations of Gallotia lizards on the Canary Islands? Does the presence of four morphologically different populations of G. In this investigation, you will use data from geography, geological history, morphology body sizeand molecular genetics to develop answers to these questions.Some of the worksheets displayed are niche partitioning and species coexistence community ecology lizard evolution virtual lab general ecology bio of biological sciences.
Larger toepads make tree climbing easier. Lizard evolution virtual lab worksheet answers. Then by the ones on trees grass and the ones on twigs. We have updated the lizard evolution virtual lab based on feedback from field testers over 50 classrooms.
Lizard evolution virtual lab the more than islands of the caribbean are home to about species of anoles a group of lizards of the genus anolis. At the beginning of the virtual lab you were asked to sort eight lizards into categories.
A particular body feature is the toepads on the anole. The virtual lab includes four modules that investigate different concepts in evolutionary biology including adaptation convergent evolution phylogenetic analysis reproductive isolation and speciation. Student handout virtual lab lizard evolution virtual lab lizard evolution virtual lab module 1.
February page 1 of 6 virtual lab lizard evolution virtual lab student handout module2phylogeny 1. Answer the following questions as you finish each module of the virtual lab or as a final assessment after completing the entire virtual lab.
At the beginning of the virtual lab you were asked to sort eigh t lizards into categories. What criteria did you initially use to make your groups. February page 1 of 6 student handout. Lizard evolution virtual lab student handout lizard evolution virtual lab answer the following questions as you finish each module of the virtual lab or as a final assessment after completing the entire virtual lab.
Niche partitioning and species coexistence answer key. Did you revise your criteria later. I sorted by lizards by the color green. Virtual lab lizard evolution virtual lab.
Lizard evolution virtual lab answerthefollowingquestionsasyoufinisheachmoduleofthevirtuallaborasafinalassessment. Some of the worksheets displayed are lizard evolution virtual lab chapter 12 zoo phonics preschool lesson plans l biol herpetology lab 11 reptile soft anatomy the evolution lab introduction biology curriculum middle school a teachers resource packet for grade 2 biology 1 work iv selected answers.
Showing top 8 worksheets in the category lizard lab.In this exercise, you examine changes in lizards in the Caribbean. Changes in the organism and changes in environmental factors both have effects on survival of different groups. No organism is completely insulated from its environment and here you explain how the two variables are connected. You find additional information on the lizards on the HHMI interactive web site. In your lab notebook, write down the biological and environmental parameters you select and record the answers to the questions.
Niche Partitioning And Species Coexistence Answer Key
As you proceed through the assignment, write down your observations. For example, what happened to lizards as they were isolated on different islands? Once you have completed the experiments and answered the questions on the Student hand-out, organize the material and upload it to the assignment dropbox. The answers to the questions should be proceeded by the question that you are answering.
Support your responses with lab data. Compose your work using a word processor or other software as appropriate and save it frequently to your computer. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you upload it.
When you are ready to submit your work, click "Browse My Computer" and find your file. Once you have located your file, click "Open" and, if successful, the file name will appear under the Attached files heading. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click "Submit. Please review the rubric carefully so you are familiar with the expectations of the activity.
You have seen how natural selection is the result of the interactions between genetic variations in a population and the environment. However, the environment may determine which variations are more favorable. More favorable traits are thereby passed on to the population through successive generations. After finishing the assigned reading in your textbook, you have an understanding of the role biological and environmental factors play in determining which variations of traits are more favorable and which could lead to extinction.
You also saw how in smaller populations genetic drift could determine which traits persisted in the population. You will now continue to prepare a laboratory report based on your observations in the Lizard Evolution Virtual Lab.
Essay Zoo. Sign In. Forgot password? Not register? Register Now! Our Catalog. English U. Total cost:.Target Species - Species of European concern. Pohl, Isoplexis canariensis: J. Alterra-report Target species — Species of European concern.
A database driven selection of plant and animal species for the implementation of the Pan European Ecological Network. Ozinga J. Smits A.
Is it better to be bigger?
Stumpel Ch. Alterra, Wageningen, Ozinga, W. A database driven selection of plant and animal species for the implementation of the Pan European E cological Network. Wageningen, Alterra, Alterra-report T he concept of ecological networks is becoming increasingly important in both policies and practices of nature conservation throughout Europe. For the establishment of such networks, it is essential to have adequate information on the threat status and distribution of plant and animal species throughout Europe.
In this report the concept of targe t species is developed, on the basis of a comm on set of criteria legal protection, threa t status and degree of endemism. A databa se has been developed which includes complete species lists for Europe for the following groups of organisms: vascular plants, vertebrates freshwater fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals and butterflies.
Based on the three criteria a pr ovisional selection of target species has been carried out. ISSN Please refer to Alterra-report This amount is including tax where applicable and handling costs.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or published in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system without the written permission of Alterra. Alterra assumes no liability for any losses resulting from the use of the research results or recommendations in this report.
Vascular plants. Implementation of the database in ecological information systems. Incorporating target species in European and national nature policies. Appendix 1 : Vascular plants. Appendix 2 : Butterflies.An anole lizard on the island, about to be captured by Aaron. Many die before they have the chance to reproduce and pass on their genes to the next generation.HHMI Educator Tips -- Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree
Darwin also noted that in every species there is variation in physical traits such as size, color, and shape. Is it simply that those who survive to reproduce are lucky, or do these traits affect which individuals have a greater or lesser chance of surviving? Evolutionary biologists often work to see how differences in traits, such as body size, relate to differences in survival among individuals.
When differences in traits are related to chances of survival, they are said to be under natural selection. Brown anole lizards are useful for studies of natural selection because they are abundant in Florida and the Caribbean, easy to catch, and have a short life span. Brown anoles are very small when they hatch out of the egg. Because of their small size, these anole hatchlings are eaten by many different animals, including birds, crabs, other species of anole lizards, and even adult brown anoles!
Predators could be a significant force of natural selection on brown anole hatchlings. Juvenile anoles that get eaten by predators will not survive to reproduce. Traits that help young brown anoles avoid predation and reproduce will get passed on to future generations. Aaron and Robert are scientists who study brown anoles on islands in Northeastern Florida. Along with their colleagues, they visit these islands every 6 to 10 weeks during the summer to survey the populations and measure natural selection in action.
Aaron and Robert selected a small island that had a large brown anole population because they were able to find and measure all of the individuals on the island. Aaron observed that in the late summer there were thousands of hatchling lizards on the island, but by the middle of the summer the following year, only a few hundred of those lizards remained alive.
He also observed that hatchlings varied greatly in body size and wondered if those differences in size affected the chances that an individual would survive to adulthood. He predicted that smaller hatchlings are more likely to die than larger ones because they are not as fast, and therefore not as likely to escape from predators and face a higher risk of being eaten.
To test this, Aaron and Robert captured hatchlings in July, assigned a unique identification number to each anole, measured their body length, and then released them back onto the island. In October of the same year, they returned to the island to capture and measure all surviving lizards.
They calculated the average percent survival for each size category. Aaron predicted longer individuals would have higher survival. This would indicate that there was natural selection for larger body size in hatchlings. Save Save. Home What are Data Nuggets? Is it better to be bigger? Aaron with a baby anole lizard.
Categories: Data Nugget Tags: adaptationanimalsevolutionpredation. Enter your name and email if you would like to receive updates on Data Nuggets! Data Nuggets aim to improve students' quantitative literacy and attitudes about science. We may contact you in the future for information on your experience with Data Nuggets. Thank you!Module 1: Ecomorphs 1. At the beginning of the virtual lab, you were asked to sort eight lizards into categories.
What criteria did you initially use to make your groups? Did you revise your criteria later? I separated the lizards by color, such a brown, brown and spotted, and green. I did not bother with length at the beginning.
An adaptation is a structure or function that is common in a population because it enhances the ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment. Provide one example and an explanation of one adaptation in the Anolis lizards. One adaptation, such as large toe pads is important because it allows a lizard to climb better. The lizards at the top need these. Provide one evolutionary explanation for why lizards living in the same part of the habitat i.
They need to have similar abilities or else they will not survive there. A lizard lives specific to its traits. What is an ecomorph? Provide one example from the virtual lab. An eco morph is a species who has the same structural habitat, but are not the same as the original species.
An example is the grass-bush anole. How is an ecomorph different from a species? They evolve into different forms to help survive. They evolve to survive their habitat. Explain how a particular body feature of one of the lizard ecomorphs from the virtual lab is an adaptation to their particular niche.
Crown Giant Ecomorphs live at the top of the trees. They are large in size and have long legs to jump from tree to tree, which is important for their habitat.Class time required: Three days: first day, students can work independently, second day students work in teams of four, and the third day should be a small group or class discussion. Materials and equipment: Scissors and glue, an atlas would be a desirable option.
Summary of activity: This activity is a logic problem that is based on real organisms and real data. The problem is to develop phylogenies for seven related populations of lizards living on the Canary Islands. Three phylogenetic charts will be constructed, each using different forms of data, geography, geology, morphology, and molecular genetics. Prior knowledge, concepts or vocabulary necessary to complete activity: This activity would be best used near the end of an evolution unit. Knowledge of the DNA code is needed and a basic understanding of biotechnologies such as gel electrophoresis, and DNA finger printing would be desirable.
Students must know the difference between a population and a species. Students should be aware of the conditions of speciation including isolation, genetic divergence, and reproductive isolation. Teacher Instructions: You may give this assignment out in pieces so as not to give students too much information on determining phylogenies.
Students should not be given Figure 1 and Map 2 until completing Part I. This could be done at home as homework. Part IV is the most difficult and most logistically demanding part of this investigation. Students will be comparing the DNA sequences for cytochrome b from seven populations. Only the first population has the complete sequence. All others listed below it have listed only what is different. However, each population must be compared with each other population.
This makes for twenty-one pairings, a formidable task even for the teacher. The strategy is to share the work. All pairing combinations are given in the student instructions. Basically students work in teams of four, each student counts differences for five pairings. Teams compare results to check for accuracy. Students will cut the DNA sequence pages into strips and paste the matching ends together to produce seven sequences.
These can be easily manipulated for pair comparisons. The final activity will be to use the results from the pairings and compare the differences and use this information to develop a final phylogeny chart. The solutions are provided. The basic scheme to remember is that low numbers of base-pair differences imply closer evolutionary relationships. The phylogeny charts are intended to stimulate student thinking about the problems of understanding past and future evolution.